FREE animations! click here

inner worlds
About this site

NEW stuff!

The short version

Gestalt hag
Existence is the natural state of the universe.

space objects
Nature of something.

all is flux
Nature of space

events cell
Creation of event cells

toroidino
Topology of event cells

universal principle
The universal organising principle

curvature of space
Determination of the curvature of space

gravity scape
Cumulative effects of event cells

mass and weight
The creation of ‘gravity’ and ‘mass’

dynamic patterns
The dynamic patterns of space

matter from energy
The production of ‘matter’ from energy

energy gradient
About energy gradients

motion without movement
;About ‘motion without movement’

lightning
The speed of light

force without force
About ‘force without force’

ball on table
Inertia and momentum

References

Site map

Links

no-big-bang

This site is frequently updated. The date-line below indicates when it was last worked on.

12 February 2015

© Copyright 2008-2015 GERRY NOLAN

If you wish to use text or images from this site, please acknowledge the source by adding this URL as a reference: http://www.gerryonolan.com/public_html/space-matters/part%201/1ahome.html

 

 

 

Inertia and momentum . . .

Inertia may be regarded as the resistance to motion, that is it applies to things that are initially stationary; momentum is the resistance to changes in motion and, therefore, applies to objects that are already in motion. In this sub-section we will explain inertia in terms of the curvature of space and motion without movement.

Recalling that there is only space, which is continuous, and that everything in the world is made of space and is intrinsic to space, we realise that when we try to move any mass, we must do it by moving it through the medium of which it is comprised and to which it is intrinsic.

The resistance to the motion of any massive object through the contiguous space is the apparent tendency for anything being moved to hold on to that space.

The more massive is an object, the more toroidinos in a more intense concentration that will comprise it, so that the curvature of the contiguous space will be greater and the more it will seem to hold on to that space. It is this holding on that endows massive bodies with inertia, which is exactly the same phenomena that causes the curvature of space that manifests as gravity, hence the equivalence of mass and inertia.

A third point to note is that to accelerate a massive body through space, either from a stationary position to some motion or from a steady speed to a higher speed, more energy will be required to create the energy gradient and consequent curvature of the contiguous space.

A specific example of inertia in this explanation is a ball of lead at rest on the bench as shown in the figure below at (a).

If we were in space and there was nothing to impede the ball rolling, or we were able to obtain the use of the physicists’ idealised frictionless plane, once we had increased the ratio of contracting cells to expanding cells enough to create the rolling, the ratio would not change, so the ball would continue to roll, that is the apparent motion of the dynamic pattern would continue. We may interpret this process as overcoming inertia and creating momentum.

Momentum

Analysing more closely the process of apparent motion created by overcoming inertia that we have just described, since we know that it is the ratio between the slopes of the contracting and expanding phases of the toroidinos in the dynamic pattern, and the energy intensity of the toroidinos that determines the degree of curvature caused by the dynamic pattern of the ball, we know that it is the act of pushing the ball that changes this ratio. In fact, as we have seen, the applied energy will increase the ratio between the slopes of the contracting and expanding phases of the fluctuations so the contracting phase will predominate even more, which will cause an increase in curvature nearest the point of application of the energy to the cells, the push, while further away the toroidinos in the dynamic pattern will be relatively expanding.

As I have pointed out in the sub-section on ‘motion without movement’, it is not a mass that is moving but the dynamic pattern of the ball responding to the increased curvature of space due to the energy being added by the push. This change in the ratio between the numbers of contracting and expanding toroidinos means that the cells on the advancing side will be able to expand in a less restricted way so that the object will ‘grow’ towards that direction and because there are so many toroidinos beginning and ending so quickly, the motion appears to be continuous.

ball on table 2
(a)
depression in space
(b)
ball on table
(c)
Similarity of the curvature of space to a depression carved in a bench

The fluctuating toroidinos that constitute the dynamic pattern we perceive as the ball of lead will change the curvature of space around the dynamic pattern as shown in the blue net pattern at (b). If we want to move the dynamic pattern that is being held in place by the curvature it is engendering, the effect of this curvature must be nullified in some way.

This means that, to roll the ball, some form of energy, a push say, must be applied to it, an action that will immediately engender a feeling in the person applying the push that there is opposition to their push, even though the ball is on a flat surface, as though something is holding the ball in place; this is the effect known as ‘inertia’. Exactly the same effect would be felt if the bench on which the ball is resting had a depression carved into its surface into which the ball fitted neatly, as shown in (c) above.

For the ball in such a depression to respond to the push and begin to roll along the bench, the pushing must raise it out of the depression. In other words, the pushing nullifies the effect of the depression in the bench.

Applying this reasoning to the ball on the flat bench surface, the pushing must somehow nullify the depression of the space in which the ball is resting, the depression in this instance being the curvature of space engendered by the intensification of energy of the dynamic pattern which we perceive as the ball.

At first it might appear that for the energy applied to the ball by the push to nullify the depression in space, it must somehow oppose the polarity of the energy which is creating the depression in which the ball is resting, that is the curvature of space that is creating the inertia of the ball. However this cannot be the case. Adding energy must add to the curvature, deepening the depression in which the ball sits, and increasing its inertia. In fact, if I press down vertically on the ball that is exactly what will happen, making the ball much more difficult to roll. In the case of the ball on the flat bench, it seems that the harder we push the more the ball resists and, of course, that will be exactly the case until we overcome the inertia and the ball begins to roll. This effect is what Newton called ‘equal and opposite reaction’. So how will we ever get the ball to roll? Let us analyse the situation from first principles.

Recalling that all of the dynamic patterns of toroidinos are intrinsic to space, we realize that the ball, the bench on which it rests, the person pushing the ball and the push itself are all regions of energy intensifications—that they are themselves dynamic patterns. If we go back to the source of the push, no matter how far back along the chain, we see that it must be an energy source that eventually causes the apparent rolling of the ball. As I have explained above, the energy source does this by adding curvature that is contiguous to the means of applying the energy, in this case the hand applying the push to the ball. Adding this curvature to the curvature already engendered by the ball results in a steepening of the curvature of the space contiguous to the ball in the region where the push is applied. That is, the curvature near where the push is applied is increased, with the result that the dynamic pattern will move towards the flatter region, that is in the direction of the push.

A two dimensional analogy of this process is that something of the same effect would be achieved by putting the ball on a mat and lifting the end of the mat, thereby increasing the curvature at the near end so that the ball will roll away as shown below.

Ball on a mat


ball on mat

Applying effort to the ball has the same effect as lifting the end of a mat

As long as we keep pulling up the end of the mat, that is supplying enough energy to overcome any losses, the ball will roll steadily. As I explained earlier, this is the same effect as maintaining the increase in curvature of space behind the dynamic pattern so that it will appear as though the ball is rolling steadily. Lifting the end of the mat higher will cause the ball to accelerate, just as applying more energy to the dynamic pattern of the ball will increase the curvature behind it and cause it to accelerate.

A rough explanation of the rolling motion is that the mechanical combination of the energy of the push and the energy of the resistance of friction between the ball and the surface of the bench will cause modifications to the dynamic pattern that we perceive as the ball rolling. If there was no friction or very low friction, on a surface of ice say, the ball would appear to slide. I reiterate that what we perceive as a ball is a dynamic pattern and it is the dynamic pattern that appears to move because the locations in space of the new toroidinos ‘lighting up’ are changing in the direction of the apparent motion.

Once the dynamic pattern is in motion it will tend to continue at a constant speed in a constant direction unless other modifying influences of energy such as air resistance or ‘forces’ from different directions act upon it, in which case they will have the effect of modifying the dynamic pattern so that it appears to change behaviour or direction.

If I reach out to stop the ball of lead from rolling, immediately my hand comes into contact with the ball I will feel opposition to my effort to stop it rolling. This opposition is caused by the fact that the ratio of the contracting toroidinos to the expanding cells is still that which kept the ball rolling. My effort to stop the ball rolling requires that I reduce this ratio to the point where it is even, so that the curvature of space behind the dynamic pattern is nullified. The only curvature that will remain is that engendered by the dynamic pattern when it is stationary. To stop the motion of the dynamic pattern of the ball we must push on—add energy to—the side of the ball at which the rate of expanding cells predominates to change it to a region where the rate of contacting toroidinos predominates and then to where it equals the rate of contracting toroidinos.

Going back to basics, this means that we have to restrict the toroidinos so that their growth is both slowed and reduced. This will require an effort that we feel as opposition to our push. Revisiting the analogy of the mat, the effect will be the same as if I pulled up the end of the mat in front of the moving ball to stop it rolling and then lowered the mat to the floor.

We have reached the stage in the development of the hypothesis that encompasses the liberation of the energy of space through the fluctuating toroidinos, which are organised according to the ontological principle through dynamic patterns into the complex structure of space in terms of which the phenomena of mass, motion—including that of light—inertia and momentum have been explained. That is about as far as we are able to proceed while maintaining, fairly strictly, the stance of a natural philosopher.

The next logical step in the development of the hypothesis is to inquire into how electromagnetic energy is created, however, based on perception and reason alone, only rudimentary steps in the investigation of this have been taken. Therefore, we will stop here until further investigation and analysis can be carried out.

KEY IDEAS

  • Inertia is the resistance to motion and applies to things that are initially stationary; momentum is the resistance to changes in motion.

  • When we move any mass, it moves through the medium of which it is comprised and to which it is intrinsic

  • The resistance to the motion of any massive object through the contiguous space is the apparent tendency for anything being moved to hold on to that space.

  • The more massive is an object, the greater the curvature of the contiguous space so the more it will seem to hold on to that space.

  • To accelerate a massive body through space more energy will be required to create the energy gradient and change in curvature of the contiguous space.

  • A two dimensional analogy of this process of this changing curvature may be achieved by putting a ball on a mat and lifting the end of the mat, thereby increasing the curvature at the near end so that the ball will roll away.

  • It is not a mass that is moving but the dynamic pattern of the ball responding to the increased curvature of space due to the energy being added.

Space is real and substantial and changing incessantly. Things are patterns of space which retain their identity because the patterns persist.