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inner worlds
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The short version

Gestalt hag
Existence is the natural state of the universe.

space objects
Nature of something.

all is flux
Nature of space

events cell
Creation of event cells

toroidino
Topology of event cells

universal principle
The universal organising principle

curvature of space
Determination of the curvature of space

gravity scape
Cumulative effects of event cells

mass and weight
The creation of ‘gravity’ and ‘mass’

dynamic patterns
The dynamic patterns of space

matter from energy
The production of ‘matter’ from energy

energy gradient
About energy gradients

motion without movement
;About ‘motion without movement’

lightning
The speed of light

force without force
About ‘force without force’

ball on table
Inertia and momentum

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This site is frequently updated. The date-line below indicates when it was last worked on.

12 February 2015

© Copyright 2008-2015 GERRY NOLAN

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The speed of light . . .

The most extreme case of motion without movement is that of the speed of electromagnetic energy through space. Although I mean all forms of electromagnetic energy, for convenience, I will refer to it in this sub-section simply as ‘light’.

Recalling that the energy gradient creates an environment conducive to the origination of toroidinos, we will try to explain the formation and transmission of light in terms of the hypothesis as it has so far been developed. That is, in terms of toroidinos, the ontological principle and the energy gradient as well as motion without movement.

We see that although the speed of light is defined as exactly 299,792,458 metres per second, it may also be calculated using the formula: c = 1/√(ε0μ0) where ε0 is the permittivity of free space and μ0 is the permeability of free space. Since it is the case that the speed of light is able be calculated using just two parameters of the so called ‘vacuum of space’, we will look more closely at what it is that determines the values of these parameters.

The electric permittivity of free space is the measure of the capacity of space to allow the propagation of, or assist in the transmission of, the force due to an electric charge, and the unit is the farad. Magnetic permeability is the magnetic equivalent of electric permittivity and it is the measure of the effectiveness of space in propagating, or assisting in the transmission of, magnetic lines of force to a distance from the source, and the unit is the henry.

Having defined the parameters, we can say that the speed of light is inversely proportional to the square root of the capacity of space to allow the propagation of  the force due to an electric charge, multiplied by the effectiveness of space in propagating magnetic lines of force to a distance from the source. Simply stated, the speed of light is inversely proportional to both the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of free space. Since the speed of light is constant, either both the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of free space are constants or if permittivity increases, permeability must simultaneously decrease to exactly balance it and vice versa. If by some chance, space was either more permissive or more permeable or both, the speed of light would be less.

It may be significant that the resonant frequency of a capacitive, inductive electrical circuit is also inversely proportional to the inductance and capacitance of a circuit in exactly the same way that the speed of light is inversely proportional to the inductance and capacitance of space. That is, the resonant frequency f = 1/√LC, where L is inductance in henrys and C is capacitance in farads, and the speed of light c = 1/√(ε0μ0), where μ0 is inductance in henrys and ε0 is capacitance in farads. However, the investigation of that subject will have to wait.

Neither inductance nor capacitance are fundamental properties, the inductance of a medium will depend on its ability to convert electric current to a magnetic field, which is another way of saying that it ultimately depends on the types of atoms of which it is comprised and the way they are arranged, that is the dynamic pattern of the toroidinos. The capacitance of a medium depends on the dielectric properties of the medium, which is another way of saying that it ultimately depends on the atoms that comprise the material and the way they are arranged, that is the dynamic pattern of the events cells. Based on this reasoning, the inductance and capacitance of space will ultimately depend on the events cells and the way they dynamic patterns into which they are arranged.

Let us assume for a moment that light is simply toroidinos which have resulted from the stimulus to the inherent instability of space caused by the tension arising from the energy gradient emanating from a source of energy. As we have hypothesised, instability in the intensity of space results in the formation of the toroidal toroidinos, so the increased instability due to the energy gradient will result in toroidinos forming along the energy gradient. That is the tension between the energy source and the contiguous space creates a gradient that provides a pathway which, according to motion without movement, causes the toroidinos to ‘light up’ in sequence along the pathway. Based on this reasoning, we see that ultimately it is the rate at which toroidinos form and the size to which they grow that will together determine both the speed and frequency of light.

But there is a problem; we have been saying all along that the rates of expansion and contraction of events cells varies and so do the sizes to which they grow, both parameters depending on the intensity of the contiguous environment of the toroidinos. If this is the case, the speed of light will vary and we are told that it is a constant, albeit one that is artificially determined, so how can we reconcile this apparent contradiction?

Remember that we have also said that, since the fluctuations of space are about a nominal mean within a certain range of sizes and energy intensity, there will be a regularity in the fluctuations resulting in the toroidinos. The justification for this supposition of regularity was that the existence of space is the natural state of the world and space is independent so there is only the inherent instability to cause changes in the intensity of space and that instability will be restricted to a limited range of scales. We note again that, if the instability and consequent fluctuations were large, they would have been noticed by now. Taking this regularity into consideration means that, although the speed of light might vary, it will only vary over a very small range and the speed of light in flat space will not vary at all. It is only when light passes through regions of higher intensities of toroidinos that its speed will decrease. This is because the toroidinos grow more slowly and to a smaller size than they do in flat space. It is common knowledge that the speed of light does indeed decrease when it passes through transparent mediums, such as glass, which are regions of higher intensities of toroidinos, and that is what produces the phenomenon of diffraction. It will also be the case that light from a distant star passing close to an intense energy source, such as the sun, will be diffracted by the energy gradient around that source, bending the light and causing the star to appear to be out of position, a phenomenon usually attributed to the curvature of space. Of course the energy density and the curvature of space are inextricably interactive, if not manifestations of the same phenomena, and it is the energy gradient and the energy of the toroidinos interacting with the energy density and the curvature of space that results in the diffraction of the light. 

The more intense the energy gradient, the higher will be the rate of fluctuations created, so the higher the frequency of the light. This is clearly evidenced by the colours of a heated steel bar, which run from red for low energy, low temperature, through the spectrum to white for high energy, high temperature.  When a blacksmith is hardening and tempering a steel bar, as he applies heat he watches the colours ‘run’ until the colour matching the correct temperature is at the correct location and then he plunges the steel into water or oil to fix it.

Because the sun as the energy source is an intense concentration of fluctuations in the intensity of space, it will have a range of rates and intensities of fluctuations, which will manifest as a range of frequencies of light and extend across the whole electromagnetic spectrum.

KEY IDEAS

  • The speed of light, defined as exactly 299,792,458 metres per second, is inversely proportional the permittivity and permeability of free space.

  • Both permittivity and permeability ultimately depend on the dynamic pattern of space.

  • The energy gradient provides a pathway which causes the toroidinos to ‘light up’ in sequence along the pathway.

  • The dynamics of the pattern of space determine both the speed and frequency of light.

  • The speed of light in space will only vary over a very small range and not all in flat space.

  • When light passes through regions of higher intensities, the phenomenon of diffraction occurs.

  • Light from a distant star passing close to an intense energy source will be diffracted by the energy gradient around that source, a phenomenon usually attributed to the curvature of space.

  • It is the energy gradient and the toroidinos interacting with the energy density that results in the diffraction of the light.

  • The range of rates and intensities of fluctuations in the sun will manifest as a range of frequencies of light extending across the whole electromagnetic spectrum.

 
Space is real and substantial and changing incessantly. Things are patterns of space which retain their identity because the patterns persist.