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inner worlds
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The short version

Gestalt hag
Existence is the natural state of the universe.

space objects
Nature of something.

all is flux
Nature of space

events cell
Creation of event cells

toroidino
Topology of event cells

universal principle
The universal organising principle

curvature of space
Determination of the curvature of space

gravity scape
Cumulative effects of event cells

mass and weight
The creation of ‘gravity’ and ‘mass’

dynamic patterns
The dynamic patterns of space

matter from energy
The production of ‘matter’ from energy

energy gradient
About energy gradients

motion without movement
;About ‘motion without movement’

lightning
The speed of light

force without force
About ‘force without force’

ball on table
Inertia and momentum

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no-big-bang

This site is frequently updated. The date-line below indicates when it was last worked on.

12 February 2015

© Copyright 2008-2015 GERRY NOLAN

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The creation of ‘gravity’ and ‘mass’ . . .

Having concluded that the curvature of space is determined according to the ontological principle and that this curvature, which manifests as gravity, is elemental to the structure of the world, we will go on with an explanation of how ‘gravity’ creates what we know as ‘mass’.

Gravity seems so familiar: we are able to calculate its effects to the nth degree, we all experience it from the moment we are conceived and it does not let go of our bodies even when we are dead. Of course there are the fortunate few who experience ‘weightlessness’ in space expeditions or in the so-called ‘vomit comet’, astronaut training aircraft, and there may be a few less fortunate who experienced the lack of gravity for a short time while in a falling lift, but the experience of being without gravity is so unusual and special that it serves only to intensify the awareness that gravity pervades the whole world at all times, and yet no one has ever explained its cause.

Of course, since Einstein promulgated his general theory of relativity, most of us who have thought about gravity know that is has something to do with the curvature of space and that ‘mass’ is somehow involved. In the 1960s, I had a ‘T’ shirt with the slogan ‘There is no gravity, the earth sucks!’ a fairly typical attitude for the decade but there is a modicum of truth to it in that the earth, and all other ‘massive’ bodies, do actually pull on space thereby creating curvature so that other ‘massive’ bodies in their domain fall towards them. According to the general theory of relativity, gravity results from the curvature of space by ‘matter’ or, as John Archibald Wheeler said ‘Matter tells spacetime how to curve; spacetime tells matter how to move’ Frank Wilczek claims Wheeler is famous for, ‘his unique talent for paradoxical profundity’ and at first glance Wheeler’s declaration does appear to be a profound summation of the general theory of relativity, however, in fact it contributes nothing to the understanding of how ‘matter’ actually ‘tells’ space how to curve, although it does lead us into the circular reasoning that ‘matter’ tells space how to curve and the curvature of space creates ‘matter’.

This ‘paradoxical’ difficulty persists because philosophers and scientists, as well as common folk, continue to regard space and matter as separate entities, thereby creating the impossibility of explaining the causal connection between the matter and the curvature of space, in much the same way as philosophers of mind of the epiphenomenal persuasion have difficulty in explaining how, without invoking action at a distance, a mind that is separate from the brain might control the brain. This mind-brain dualism flows from Descartes’ cogito and has been dubbed the ‘Cartesian Catastrophe’ by Arthur Koestler.

Considering the misconceptions about the world that have followed from the partitioning of the world into atoms and the void by Leucippus and Democritus, a division that is usually attributed to Democritus, we might equally dub this partitioning the ‘Democritean Disaster’. Once we make the Gestalt switch and accept that space is all there is, the problem of how matter ‘tells’ space how to curve simply dissolves, because space and matter are the same entity. I will explain.

To begin, we invoke another of Wheeler’s ‘paradoxical profundities’, ‘mass without mass’, which Wheeler goes on to explain in this way:

These points [particles] are annoying pinpricks in the body of physics. We endure them because we have to, while hoping that someday we will identify and understand an inner structure in what today seem points. A beauty of the geon, in my eyes, is that it exposes such an inner structure —not, to be sure, in an infinitesimal entity, but in a body that from a great distance looks and acts like a point source.

Perhaps the toroidino that we have hypothesised is the ‘body’ that Wheeler seeks but cannot find just because he is looking for a separate ‘body’ and not an event cell in the potential energy field that emerges from the fluctuations of the energy intensity of space. Even from the point of view of the nucleus of an atom, the toroidal cell, being some 20 orders of magnitude smaller than the nucleus, would certainly look like a ‘point source’. It would be roughly equivalent to standing at the edge of the Milky Way galaxy and looking at a basketball at the centre of the galaxy.

Before continuing, in view of my earlier assertion that there are no particles, only toroidinos which are in a process of incessant change, we note that the words ‘matter’ and ‘mass’, as well as the concepts they evoke because of millennia of usage and association, require revision. Therefore, in what follows in this thesis we will only use the words ‘matter’ and ‘mass’ and the concepts they evoke in the sense that they denote concentrations of toroidinos.

From whence comes mass?
Recall that when I refer to ‘mass’, I mean the toroidinos of fluctuating energy in which the rate of the contractions predominates over the rate of expansions, which causes curvature as well as concentrations of these cells and on up through regions of concentrations, all the way to the cosmological scale. Simply put, mass is a concentration in the energy field of space to which it is intrinsic. From our own experience we know that inertia and momentum are related to mass, therefore, if mass is the result of concentrations of toroidinos of fluctuating energy in which the contractions predominate over the expansions, it must be possible to explain inertia and momentum in the same terms.

At the risk of being tedious, I emphasise that it is impossible to overestimate the importance of the fact that, according to the hypothesis we are developing, the toroidinos are intrinsic to space. The failure to realise and accept this has resulted in philosophers, physicists and mathematicians struggling to jury-rig all manner of Heath-Robertson contrivances in the formulation of their ideas and hypotheses to try and explain the observations. I reiterate that it is because of this intrinsicalness that the drawing-in of each contracting toroidino and the accumulation of concentrations of predominantly contracting toroidinos causes the curvature of the energy field of space that manifests as gravity and leads to the further accumulation of toroidinos, concentrations and regions.

The larger the number of toroidinos concentrated in a region and the greater the predominance of the contracting phase of the cells, the steeper will be the curvature of the contiguous space and the more difficult it will be to ‘lift up’ the concentration of toroidinos against the curvature, that is, the heavier the concentration will feel. This heaviness is what we know as ‘mass’ and is symbolised in the figure below in (a).

‘Mass’ and ‘weight’

mass and weight 1

(a)

mass and weight 3

(b)

mass and weight 2

(c)

The greater the curvature of space, as shown in (b), the more effort will be to lift the concentration out of it, and the more massive it will appear to be. Obviously, if the concentration of toroidinos is within the curvature of a very much larger concentration of toroidinos, for example the concentration we know as the earth, that concentration will have an effect on the ‘weight’ of the smaller concentration, which will vary with distance from the centre of mass of the larger concentration as shown in (c), but it will have no effect on the mass of the smaller concentration.

A factor that will greatly increase the overall concentration of the energy in a region of space is the way in which the toroidal cells have a greater propensity to link up than they would if they were spherical. This linking will tend to reinforce the intensity of the concentration of cells and the persistence of the pattern of the cells. As shown below, once they have linked up the cells will tend to compress tightly into even denser concentrations, creating an intensification of the cumulative effect of the cells linking. Since it is increased intensity that causes the curvature of space, this linking will cause more intense concentrations, causing more curvature and so on, in a self reinforcing process. (a) (b) (c).

Toroidinos link and compress into greater intensity

toroidino field

(a)

partly compressed toroidinos

(b)

compressed toroidinos

(c)

Even when a toroidino in the linkage ends, that is it fluctuates out of existence, because they fluctuate at such a high rate, it is highly probable that a toroidino that ends will soon be replaced by another toroidino in the same location in such a way that these linkages become embryonic patterns. It is these nascent patterns that are formed into larger more complex, but always dynamic, patterns according to the ontological principle, which is applied through the mechanism of gravity to form the objects and things that comprise the complex structure of the world.

KEY IDEAS

  • Gravity pervades the whole world at all times, and yet no one has ever explained its cause.

  • Space tends to flow into ‘massive’ bodies thereby creating curvature so that other ‘massive’ bodies in their domain fall towards them.

  • The ‘paradoxical’ difficulty of whether matter creates curvature or curvature creates matter persists because people continue to regard space and matter as separate entities.

  • Once we make the Gestalt switch and accept that space is all there is, the problem of how matter ‘tells’ space how to curve simply dissolves, because space and matter are the same entity.

  • Wheeler’s geon has an inner structure that from a great distance looks and acts like a point source. Perhaps the toroidino is the ‘body’ that Wheeler seeks but cannot find just because he is looking for a separate ‘body’ and not an event cell of space.

  • Simply put, mass is a concentration in the energy field of space to which it is intrinsic.

  • The more toroidinos concentrated in a region and the greater the predominance of the contracting phase of the cells, the steeper will be the curvature of the contiguous space and the more difficult it will be to ‘lift up’ the concentration of toroidinos against the curvature. This heaviness is what we know as ‘mass’.

  • A factor that will greatly increase the overall concentration of the energy in a region of space is the way in which the toroidal cells have a propensity to link up.

  • Even when a toroidino in the linkage fluctuates out of existence, it is highly probable that it will be replaced immediately by another toroidino in the same location in such a way that these linkages become embryonic patterns.

Space is real and substantial and changing incessantly. Things are patterns of space which retain their identity because the patterns persist.