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Existence is the natural state of the universe.

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Nature of space

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The universal organising principle

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Cumulative effects of event cells

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The creation of ‘gravity’ and ‘mass’

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This site is frequently updated. The date-line below indicates when it was last worked on.

12 February 2015

© Copyright 2008-2015 GERRY NOLAN

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Cumulative effects of event cells . . .
Implications of the cumulative effects of the concentrations of cells in which the rate of contraction is predominant
When we evaluate the cumulative effects of the changing sizes of the toroidinos, there are two crucial factors to consider; first, the ratios of the rates of expansion to the rates of contraction of the individual toroidinos in the accumulation. We have shown this ratio by the relative slopes of the lines representing the rates on a graph. Secondly, we need to consider the difference between the initial size and the final expanded size of the individiual toroidinos, the sum of which is the change in the size of the accumulation of toroidinos, that is, its growth.

In the regions in which the contracting phase of the accumulation of toroidinos predominates, the space will be curved. This curvature is what we know as ‘gravity’. Notice that, since the fluctuations of the cells of fluctuating energy are quantum fluctuations, we may claim to have generated gravity from quantum fluctuations, in other words, the much sought after quantum gravity! However, this conclusion seems far too easy, and we are getting ahead of ourselves again.

As indicated earlier, if the environment of a toroidino is highly populated with other toroidinos its rate of expansion will be retarded. However, this same high population will assist the rate of contraction or collapse of the toroidino, with the result being that the contracting phase predominates. The cumulative effect of the concentration of toroidinos in which the contracting phase predominates is that there is a relatively slow expansion and an abrupt contraction of the accumulation, as shown below. This will apply, no matter how extensive that concentration might be.

The contracting phase predominates

contracting phase predominates

The cumulative effect of the concentration of toroidinos in which the contracting phase predominates is that there is a relatively slow expansion and an abrupt contraction of a region of space.

The fluctuations of the individual toroidinos will integrate to an overall internal fluctuation of the region. This internal fluctuation will interact with the fluctuations of the proximate environment of the region and the resultant fluctuations will manifest as waves of contractions and expansions of the region of space. These waves will disperse throughout space in every direction from the region of concentration. In other words, each wave is caused by each contraction in the region of toroidinos ‘pulling’ on the contiguous space as the contraction occurs, that is the surrounding space is under tension, and when the contracting phase ends and a new expanding phase begins, it releases the tension on the surrounding space. Of course the intensity of the contraction of the concentration of toroidinos will depend on the balance between the contracting and expanding cells, of which more presently.

To clarify what I mean about the waves in space, we return to the atmospheric pressure analogy.

Recall that the overall wind speed is a product of the atmospheric pressure gradient, however our own observations tell us that the wind speed is never steady for more than a few seconds. We are familiar with the wind incessantly gusting and fading with ever varying degrees of amplitude in the way that waves in the ocean do. The relevance of this apparent digression is that the waves of space caused by the fluctuations of the concentrations and regions of toroidinos behave in a manner similar to wind gusts. While the overall wind speed is determined by the pressure gradient, gusts are caused when the momentum of a local ‘parcel of air’ causes it to outrun itself, thereby creating tension in the air intervening between it and the subsequent parcel of air, with the result that a gust will be followed by a period of near calm or even a reversal of the direction of the wind. In some weather conditions these gusts and calms can be timed to the second. In a similar way the waves of space may have a high degree of regularity.

Note two further points: first, because the individual toroidinos themselves fluctuate in size, the more toroidinos there are in a region of toroidinos in which the contacting phase is predominant, the stronger will be this wave of accumulated contractions. Secondly, because the toroidinos are intrinsic to space and space is continuous, the waves will also spread through space that has fewer regions of intensifications of cells, that is, where space is flatter.

We may interpret these waves as ‘gravitational waves’ and, as a first approximation the intensity of the waves will decrease with distance from the centre of the concentration according to the inverse square law, as though the centre was a ‘point source’. However the situation is more complicated than that, in fact it is clear that at least two additional things will affect the changing intensity of the waves; first, the intensity of the concentration of the region itself will decrease away from the maximum, which will cause a further flattening of the curvature and a decrease in the intensity of the waves because, with fewer toroidinos, there is less energy in the wave. Secondly, another concern is the nature of the space the waves are traversing; if it is flat, the waves will travel unimpeded, but if there are intervening regions of concentrations of toroidinos the waves will interact with the waves from these regional concentrations. Of course, the degree of interaction will depend on the relative energy intensity of the waves. For example, if the transiting waves are from an extremely intense source they will not be so greatly affected by concentrations of lower energy. 

Moreover, there are no regions of space that are not fluctuating to some degree, albeit the fluctuations may be well below the threshold that would create enough curvature for accretion to begin and the process of ‘matter’ formation to start. Regions in which this state of affairs prevails would produce no visible ‘matter’, but they would still cause some curvature and invisible accumulations of cells of fluctuating energy. That is, ‘empty’ space will gravitate but invisibly, which could be what gives rise to what is known as ‘dark matter’, which is hypothesised to comprise 22 per cent of the total matter in the universe.

In addition, since the cells and regions of concentrations of cells are intrinsic to space and space is continuous, the gravitational waves from other regions—regions with both visible and invisible ‘matter’—will spread through the space that has very few intensifications. It is interesting to note that, while there may be no visible matter in these regions, gravity waves will still be perturbed, the large scale effects of which may possibly be large enough to measure with gravitational wave detectors

Moving on from the gravitational waves, as I have indicated and as I have tried to make clear in the illustrations, the degree of curvature surrounding the concentration of the region will also decrease in intensity with increasing distance from the primary focus of the concentration, that is, the ‘point source’. This indicates that it is not accurate to treat the source of the curvature as a ‘point source’, which has implications for the practice of regarding the centre of gravity of ‘masses’ as point sources.

Implications of the cumulative effects of the concentrations of cells in which neither the rate of expansion or contraction is predominant
If the environment of a toroidino is not so highly populated, that is it is in a region that has a low intensification of toroidinos, the restriction on the growth of each toroidino may be such that the growth rate and the rate of contraction are about equal.

This will result in the contraction phase and the expansion phase in each toroidino being about equal, that is, neither predominates. The consequent cumulative effect of a concentration of these evenly balanced fluctuations will be that the expansions and contractions average out, resulting in little or no expansion or contraction of the region. This is shown below applied to a region of toroidinos, however large that might be.

The contracting phase and the expansion phase are about equal

contraction and expansion about equal

In this region of toroidinos the contiguous cells do not restrict the growth of the toroidinos so much with the result that the rates of expansion and contraction of the region are about the same.

The combined cumulative effects of the one to one ratio of expansion and contraction and the lower intensification of toroidinos in the region will be a relatively flat region of space. This would be the case in regions where there is no visible ‘matter’, and will result in very low intensity gravity waves which, perhaps, we might call ‘gravity ripples’.

Consequently, bearing in mind that these regions are intrinsic to space and that space is continuous, the regions of apparently ‘empty’ space will themselves gravitate but invisibly so which, as I have noted, is a candidate for ‘dark matter’.

The recognition of the fact that the gravity waves will spread from, as well as through, space that has fewer intensifications, leads to the question of whether this ‘empty’ space itself has ‘mass’. Simply put, if it has any curvature at all resulting from the accumulation of contracting toroidinos, it must have ‘mass’.

As we saw earlier, the toroidino ‘grips’ the surrounding space ‘pulling’ it into each contracting toroidino so that the adjacent space, to which the event cell is intrinsic, will experience tension that will decrease as the distance from the toroidino increases. Also, the effect of this is to curve space more steeply near the toroidino with the curvature falling off as the distance from the toroidino increases. This will result in a flattening of space as the mean is approached, eventually becoming a curve of expansion, which curves more gently in the opposite direction in the region of the expanding cell.

Implications of the cumulative effects of the concentrations of predominantly expanding toroidinos Individual toroidinos in regions of expansion will be able to expand more rapidly and their rate of contraction will be slower, as shown below for an individual toroidino, or a region of a concentration of toroidinos.

The expansion phase predominates

expanding phase predominates

In this region there is much less pressure from the contiguous toroidinos so the rate of expansion is much higher, as well as to a larger size, and the rate of contraction of the region relatively much slower.

The consequence of being in a region which is sparsely populated with events cells will be that the individual toroidinos will grow relatively more quickly as well as to a larger size, resulting in the cumulative effect of a wave of expansion of space, as shown above.

It may be conjectured at this point that, because the ratio of expansion to contraction will be greater only in regions with low accumulations of toroidinos, that is regions where there is no visible ‘mass’, and because it causes the expansion of space, possibly in some regions an accelerating expansion, we may interpret the result as ‘dark energy’. That is, the effect proposed as the reason for the discovery of the accelerating rate of the expansion of the universe. This mysterious ‘dark energy’ is hypothesised to comprise some 70 per cent of the mass-energy of the world. Also a key point to note in this context is that the expansion of each toroidino and the cumulative expansion will cause space to expand without the need for the production of any new ‘mass’, thereby avoiding the necessity to contravene the principle of conservation of energy and matter.  

The ontological principle
So far we have found that the ontological principle according to which the structure and behaviour of space is determined has two elements; first, the event cells liberate the equilibrium energy of space to make it available and, secondly, it is the ratio between the rates of expansion and contraction of the event cells which determines their behaviour and the behaviour of accumulations of event cells at all scales. In other words it is a scale invariant principle. Accordingly, it is the behaviour of the toroidinos and the accumulations of toroidinos that results in varying amounts of gravity throughout the universe and consequently, the structure of the world. This sequence is shown below.
The ontological principle

ontological principle

The ratio between the rates of expansion and contraction is fundamental to the ontological principle by which ‘gravity’ acts to produce the structure of the world.

With the unremitting changing occurring in the toroidinos and concentrations of toroidinos that I have so frequently emphasised, it may well be wondered how anything like the universal gravitational constant, ‘Big G’, may have come to pass, especially as it appears to be constant throughout the known universe.

I have mentioned briefly the regularity of the fluctuations in the intensity of space and, consequently, of the toroidinos. This same regularity applies to the gravitational constant. It may vary slightly in different regions of space and even within our own region, which may account for the inconsistencies commonly associated with the measurements to determine G. Later I will discuss this in further detail, with evidence of inconsistencies.

Summarising this section; the ratio between the rate of expansion and the rate of contraction of each toroidino determines the amount and direction of curvature of the contiguous space. This ratio is elemental to the ontological principle and, consequently, the creation of gravity. We will now move on to inquire into how the complex structure of the world is determined according to the ontological principle by which the toroidinos are organised into dynamic patterns of space resulting in gravity and mass.

KEY IDEAS

  • The resultant of the ratios and the changes in the sizes of the toroidinos determines the size of the accumulation.

  • Regions of accumulations in which the contracting phase predominates, will be curved. This curvature is what we know as ‘gravity’.

  • The fluctuations of a region will manifest as waves of contractions and expansions of the region of space, which will disperse throughout space in every direction.

  • We may interpret these waves as ‘gravitational waves’, the intensity of which will decrease according to the inverse square law, as though the centre was a ‘point source’.

  • Two additional things will affect the changing intensity of the waves; the intensity of the concentration of the region itself; and the nature of the space the waves are traversing.

  • The fluctuations may be below the threshold that would produce visible ‘matter’, but they would still cause some curvature and invisible accumulations of cells of fluctuating energy. That is, ‘empty’ space will gravitate but invisibly, which could be what gives rise to what is known as ‘dark matter’, which is hypothesised to comprise 22 per cent of the total matter in the universe.

  • Because the ratio of expansion to contraction will be greater only in regions with low accumulations of toroidinos, and because it causes the expansion of space, possibly in some regions an accelerating expansion, we may interpret the result as ‘dark energy’.

  • Also, the cumulative expansion will cause space to expand without the need for the production of any new ‘mass’, thereby avoiding the necessity to contravene the principle of conservation of energy and matter.

Space is real and substantial and changing incessantly. Things are patterns of space which retain their identity because the patterns persist.