The world is organised according to a universal principle that applies at every scale from the Planck scale to cosmological scales. We call this universal principle the ‘ontological principle’. It is important to be clear that the ontological principle does not organise the world, the world is organised according to the ontological principle.
We have proposed that the ontology of the world is an energy field, the intensity of which is fluctuating incessantly into toroidinos, that is, it is an event ontology. In this part of the investigation we inquire into what it is in the intrinsic nature of space that gives rise to the ontological principle.
As we reasoned earlier, if the energy field of space was in a state of equilibrium, there would be no energy available with which to organise the universe, therefore the ontological principle must emerge from space itself through the event cells and the intrinsic nature of their fluctuating energy intensity. Purely random fluctuations would cancel out, so there must be something special about the fluctuations that enables them to be a means of extracting the energy. Since we have deemed that the field of fluctuating potential energy manifests as toroidinos, we will regard them as candidates for making the energy available for the creation of order in the universe.
The importance of ratios of rates of expansion and contraction of toroidinos
At the end of the sub-section on the topology of the toroidinos, I noted that changing energy intensity will result in the expansion or contraction of the toroidinos and that their changing size will be strongly influenced by the activity taking place in the contiguous events cells. Let us now analyse more closely a toroidino.
To provide a starting point, I have reproduced the earlier figure as (a) below. This is the profile of a fundamental fluctuation in the energy intensity of space that produces a toroidino. Part (b) of the figure is a representation of the toroidino showing the variation of the energy intensity over time and (c) graphs the rate of change of size of the toroidino against the changing energy intensity of the toroidino.
These figures help to explain how the ratio between the rate of change of the expanding phase and rate of change of the contracting phase of the toroidino determines the local shape of space. Sometimes the ratio results in the contraction of space, and sometimes it results in the expansion of space, and through these mechanisms, to other very important phenomena.
Profiles of a toroidino
Part (a) of the figure shows the event beginning when, due to an inherent localised fluctuation away from the mean energy intensity of space, the internal energy intensity of an event cell of space increases from the mean. The ‘mean intensity’ may be interpreted as the unperturbed energy field of space but, as is the case with the mean or standard pressure in the atmosphere, because of the incessant fluctuations of the energy intensity of the energy field, it is a nominal condition, never more than a state passed through during change.
Initially it is the intensity inside the event cell that is changing, thereby creating the toroidino, and this is what is shown in figure (a) as a series of curves, while (b) places the changing internal intensity against time as a smooth curve.
The changing intensity inside the event cell is shown as a smooth curve because, if there were irregularities in the curve, the beginning of each irregularity would have to be classed as the beginning of a separate fluctuation event within the event we are considering, which would make them more fundamental than that event. However, since we have already said that the change we are considering is occurring at the most fundamental scale, logically there cannot be a smaller event.
In these terms it is arguable that the change from increasing intensity to decreasing intensity or vice versa should be seen as the beginning of another event, and it may also be argued that the change in intensity from one value to another would constitute an event. However, arguing about what constitutes an event in this context will not resolve that particular issue, so I will leave it. The definition of a toroidino that we are using is that it starts when the energy intensity varies in either direction from the nominal mean, changes smoothly to its maximum variation and ends when the variation returns to the mean or when the toroidino collapses and goes out of existence altogether.
The way in which this smoothly changing potential manifests as a change in the size of the cell is represented in figure (c), which shows the effect of the fluctuation in energy intensity as the changing size of the toroidino, in this case with the expansion phase taking longer than the contraction phase. That is the change in energy intensity shown on the y+ axis of (a) and (b) is applied to the x axis of (c). We might have expected that the size would follow the smooth curve of the change in the internal intensity over time but external factors have to be considered, as explained below.
To be absolutely clear about the contracting and expanding phases of toroidinos we say this: whenever a change in the intensity away from the mean intensity of a cell of space begins, it is the beginning of an event cell which we have named a ‘toroidino’. This change may be from the nominal mean to a higher intensity in one direction or from the nominal mean to a higher intensity in the other direction. Whenever the intensity is increasing from the mean to higher intensity in either direction from the mean, depending on the activity in the contiguous toroidinos, the toroidino will be expanding. Whenever the intensity of a toroidino is decreasing in either direction from above the mean back to the mean, depending on the activity in the contiguous toroidinos, the toroidino will be contracting.
So far we have found that the ontological principle by which the structure and behaviour of space is determined has two elements; first, the event cells liberate the equilibrium energy of space to make it available and, secondly, it is the ratio between the rates of expansion and contraction of the event cells which determines their behaviour and the behaviour of accumulations of event cells at all scales.
In the next sub-section we will analyse more closely both the expanding and contracting phases of the toroidino to see how they might affect and be affected by the contiguous space and the implications for an ontological principle. This analysis will include the following:
— comparing the slopes of the curves representing the rates of change of the expanding and contracting phases of the individual cells;
— evaluating the effect of this ratio between the slopes;
— the cumulative effects of the ratios on the rate of change of the size of the accumulation;
— the final size of the accumulation of toroidinos.
A further point is that event cells do not repeat in the same location, each fluctuation in the energy intensity of space is a brand new event.
- The world is organised according to a universal principle, called the ‘ontological principle’, that applies at every scale.
- The world is a fluctuating energy field which manifests as toroidinos, which makes the energy available for the creation of order in the world.
- Whenever a change in the intensity away from the mean intensity of space begins, it is the beginning of an event cell.
- Whenever the intensity is increasing from the mean to higher intensity, depending on the activity in the contiguous space, the event cell will be expanding.
- Whenever the intensity is decreasing, depending on the activity in the contiguous space, the event cell will be contracting.
- The balance between the rates of expansion and contraction of event cells will depend on their incessantly changing environment.
- Event cells do not fluctuate in the same location, each fluctuation is a brand new event.