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The short version

Gestalt hag
Existence is the natural state of the universe.

space objects
Nature of something.

all is flux
Nature of space

events cell
Creation of event cells

toroidino
Topology of event cells

universal principle
The universal organising principle

curvature of space
Determination of the curvature of space

gravity scape
Cumulative effects of event cells

mass and weight
The creation of ‘gravity’ and ‘mass’

dynamic patterns
The dynamic patterns of space

matter from energy
The production of ‘matter’ from energy

energy gradient
About energy gradients

motion without movement
;About ‘motion without movement’

lightning
The speed of light

force without force
About ‘force without force’

ball on table
Inertia and momentum

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This site is frequently updated. The date-line below indicates when it was last worked on.

12 February 2015

© Copyright 2008-2015 GERRY NOLAN

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Creation of events cells . . .
The hypothesis we are investigating is based on two assumptions: first, space did not ‘come into existence’, it is the natural state of the universe, and secondly, space is an energy field. Putting the two assumptions together leads to the assumption that space is an energy field that has existed eternally.

Proceeding on this basis, if space was in a state of stable equilibrium, like a vast dead ocean with no currents, eddies or waves it would be a in state of maximum disorder, in which there would be no energy available to do work to create order. In other words, it would not be an energy field at all. Once a system is in a state of maximum disorder that state of affairs is irreversible without an input of energy from outside the system.

This leads to the conclusion that, if the universe had ever been in a state of maximum disorder and stable equilibrium, and because the universe is all there is there is nowhere from where it could receive an input of energy, it would still be the case that it was in a state of maximum disorder and stable equilibrium. We may conclude from this that it is not possible for the universe ever to have been in such a state. Furthermore, since there is no possibility of energy being available from outside the system, yet there is energy in ther system, there must be something happening that is inherent to the energy field that makes the energy of the universe (space) available for the creation of order.

This is the first point to understand; energy can only be extracted from an energy field which is apparently in a state of stable equilibrium if the energy field is inherently changing to make the energy available. Therefore, since our own senses tell us that there is considerable order in the universe at every perceivable scale, there must be inherent change occurring in the energy field of space.

The second point is; in everything we are able to perceive there is incessant change at every scale, this leads to the reasonable inference that, beyond the threshold of our perception, everything, including the intensity of the energy field of space, is changing incessantly. That is the intensity of the energy field is fluctuating incessantly and it is the tension that arises between the inherent fluctuations in the energy intensity of the energy field of space that makes it available to do the work of creating order.

Continue below the figures . . .

Referring to the synoptic chart above, even without a course in meteorology, we can work out that the difference in pressure between the High and Low cells in the atmosphere will cause tension between the cells which will result in the air trying to flow from the High pressure cell to the Low pressure cell and that it is this flow of air that we experience as wind.

The pressure difference between the cells is shown on the synoptic chart by the isobars, which are the lines joining places of equal pressure. If the isobars are close together they indicate that there is a steep pressure gradient, that is a large pressure change over a short distance between the High and Low cells. The velocity of the wind generated depends not on the absolute pressure difference, but on the steepness of the pressure gradient, a steep pressure gradient resulting in strong winds, perhaps gale force winds. The point is that the air is never still, that is it never reaches a state of stable equilibrium in which it would remain motionless. Certainly we get ‘still’ days where the air hardly seems to move, but the air pressures are continually changing, otherwise the weather could not change, and there are no days when we don’t have some weather!

Applying the weather analogy to space, we interpret it in this way; space is the natural state of affairs and has always existed but, like the atmosphere, it is in an unstable state. Unlike the atmosphere, which is not an isolated system and may be perturbed by external energy, the instability of space is inherent and is its natural state. This inherent instability causes the energy intensity in some small expanses of space, call them ‘cells’, to vary from the energy intensity of other cells, which causes tension between the cells in an analogous way to that in which tension occurs because of the pressure gradient between a High pressure cell and a Low pressure cell in the atmosphere.

Calling the expanse of space in which the energy intensity is changing a ‘cell’ may seem to be circular in that it presupposes that the cell exists before the energy intensity starts to change, so it is important to understand that there is no ‘cell’ until the energy intensity starts to change.

Continue in right column below figures . . .

synoptic chart
The synoptic chart of the atmospheric system indicates that there are cells of low pressure (L) and cells of higher pressure (H) in the atmosphere.
Partial profile of atmospheric system
a-b profile
The pressure tends downwards below the standard pressure of 1013 hPa at the Low and above it at the High.

Clearly, we are faced with a chicken and egg situation here; what comes first, the tension or the energy?

We have said that the energy for the creation of order arises from the tension between the inherent fluctuations in the energy field and it follows from this that the energy field must be prior to the tension. Following our earlier reasoning that there has to be something, and that something is space, which is an energy field, we reason that it is fluctuations in the intensity of the energy field that create the tension that gives rise to the energy to create order in the universe.

There are many examples of unstable states of affairs in which the state of an object or region continually fluctuates around the nominal equilibrium without ever stabilising on the equilibrium.

Just two examples of this type of fluctuation occur in the atmosphere and the oceans. We will use these as examples to emphasise the point that it is to be expected that large bodies fluctuate unremittingly around the equilibrium at every scale without ever stabilising at the equilibrium.

In the figure below, I have held the size of the cell constant for illustration and descriptive purposes but, of course, the beginning of a change in energy intensity marks the beginning of a cell which will at least tend to change in size from the instant that the intensity changes.

It is important to note that the tension between the cells is occurring because of the fluctuations in the energy intensity of space itself, not between space and something else. I have attempted to show this diagrammatically in the figure below headed ‘Fluctuations of space’. In each cell the vertical axis represents the energy intensity and the horizontal axis represents the nominal width of the cell at that instant. Whenever the energy intensity of a volume of space varies from the mean we will refer to this changing energy intensity of space as an ‘event cell’.

Also, it is essential to remember at all times that what is going on is an unremitting process: each event cell is itself changing in energy intensity and size and is completely surrounded by other event cells which are changing in energy intensity and size.

Fluctuations of space
event cells
The size of the cell is held constant for illustration and descriptive purposes but, of course, the beginning of a change in energy intensity marks the beginning of a cell which will at least tend to change in size from the instant that the intensity changes.

Fluctuating space
We know from our own observations that large bodies do fluctuate at every scale, a familiar example being the large swells in the ocean which have waves superimposed on them and the waves have ripples and the ripples have ripplets and so on . . .

The incessant fluctuating of large bodies occurs because different expanses or regions from tiny to very large are inevitably and continually inherently perturbed by different amounts, This perturbing creates tension between the regions which, because of their inter-connectedness, one fluctuating region will perturb the contiguous regions and so on . . . so there is an incessant adjustment going on to even out the tensions caused by the perturbations.

Based on the forgoing account of the fluctuations at every scale of large bodies, we will consider in more detail the possibility that the energy intensity of space itself is fluctuating incessantly at every scale. However, unlike other large bodies, which are subject to perturbation by a number of causes, because space is prior, primary and everywhere, there cannot be anything more fundamental or external to have caused these fluctuations. That is, whereas in a large body of water or air we can usually determine what the causes of the perturbations are and whether they are internal or external to the body, we cannot do so with space, therefore the only alternative is to say that the fluctuations of the energy intensity of space are due to its inherent instability.

What I mean by ‘inherent instability’ is that whatever instability space has must be come from within and be due to the nature of space, it must be the natural state of space. There is the possibly of a perception of circularity in this assertion unless it is appreciated that there has never been a time when there was no inherent instability and no fluctuating going on, so it is the natural state of space to fluctuate.

Since we have assumed that space is an energy field and energy is all that space is, the inherent instability of space must be inherent instability in the energy intensity such that it fluctuates from a nominal mean to lower intensities and from a nominal mean to higher intensities.

Because space has been here for all time there is no point in asking what caused the first fluctuations, space is so big that it is unreasonable to expect that its energy intensity could be completely homogenous, so there must always have been expanses of space with a different energy intensity from other expanses with the consequent tensions between them.

An analogous phenomenon to the incessant instability of space is the behaviour of the atmosphere due to the instability in air pressure. As you can see from the synoptic chart in the figure above, there are cells of low pressure (L) and cells of higher pressure (H) in the atmosphere.

If we take a cross section of the pressures along a line from A to B on the chart, between the low pressure (L) and the high pressure (H), as shown below the synoptic chart, we see that the pressure tends downwards below the standard pressure of 1013 hPa at the Low and above it at the High. Looking at a sequence of synoptic charts quickly conveys the reality of the incessant fluctuations in air pressure.

With this analogy of weather systems we hope to indicate that there is a mean energy intensity of space and there are localised fluctuations around this mean without necessarily ever settling at the mean, in the same way as there are localised fluctuations in the air pressure around the standard atmospheric pressure. We call this a ‘downwardly applicable’ principle in that we can relate what is occurring at the macro-scale of the weather down to what is occurring at microscopic scales of the fluctuations of space.

A candidate for these microscopic fluctuations is what John Wheeler named the ‘quantum foam’, which is, ‘made up not merely of particles popping into an out of existence without limit, but of space-time itself churned into a lather of distorted geometry’. Tthe expression ‘quantum foam’ describes a phenomenon that is occurring at distances in the order of the Planck length, 10-35 metres.

Although I have held the size constant in the graphical symbols of the event cell for this part of the explanation, of course the size of the event cell will change as the energy intensity varies in that the event cell. It will tend to contract as the energy intensity decreases and expand as the energy intensity increases, both phases being modified by the energy intensity of the contiguous energy cells.

An analysis of the fluctuations follows:
A—The straight line across the width of the event cell represents the mean of the energy intensity of space, which corresponds to the 1013 hPa pressure in the atmospheric analogy. However, as with the standard atmospheric pressure, the mean energy intensity is only a transitory state in the change from higher to lower energy intensity or vice versa. 

B—Due to the inherent instability of space, the energy intensity of an event cell starts to decrease below the normal, causing a tendency for the cell to decrease in size, thereby increasing the tension between it and the contiguous event cells which will expand as the event cell contracts.

C—The energy intensity of the event cell is deceasing further, increasing the tension between it and adjacent event cells, the expansion of which will continue to follow the contraction of the event cell.  

D—The energy intensity of the event cell has decreased to almost zero and it may collapse altogether. Such a collapse would be the end of that event cell simultaneously resulting in the contiguous event cells expanding to replace it, thereby preventing the formation of a ‘hole’ in space.

E—If the event cell has not collapsed altogether, its intensity may increase, thereby reducing the tension between it and adjacent event cells and causing it to expand.

F —The intensity of the event cell returns to the mean intensity and that event cell ends.

G—A new event cell begins, this time with increasing energy intensity, again increasing tension between it and the adjacent event cells, but this time it is in the opposite direction. This reversal of the direction of tension may be seen as a change in the polarity of the charge of the cell or it may give the appearance of being the opposite state of matter, anti-matter say. These are questions that will be considered later.

H—The intensity of the cell continues to increase, further increasing the tension between it and the adjacent cells.

In A to F we have just described one full fluctuation event of the intensity of space if a collapse does not occur at D, and the beginning of a fluctuation in the opposite direction at G. The cumulative effect of these fluctuating event cells is a field of varying tensions and, because tension is a form of potential energy, it is a field of fluctuating potential energy in which the contracting event cells will appear to have one polarity and the expanding event cells the opposite. It is the fluctuating event cells that make available the energy of space for the work of creating order. Now we need to consider the way in which this energy is put to work, and to do this we first need to establish what determines the way in which the energy is put to work.

Since all we have so far is the randomly fluctuating event cells ‘. . . churned into a lather of distorted geometry’, we will move on to consider what property of these events cells might play a role in the creation of the order that we perceive in the world. It seems that the topology of the event cells may be a candidate to provide the type of influence required.

 

KEY IDEAS

  • Space is the natural state of the universe, and space exists as an energy field.

  • Something that is inherent to the energy field makes the energy of space available for the creation of order.

  • It is the natural state of space to fluctuate.

  • Fluctuations of the energy intensity of space are due to its inherent instability.

  • The instability of space is analogous to the instability of the atmosphere.


  • The energy intensity varies in small expanses of space called ‘cells’.

  • Variations in the energy intensity cells causes tension between the cells.

  • Tension between the cells occurs because of the fluctuations in the energy intensity of space, not between space and something else.

  • We refer to this changing energy intensity of space as an ‘event cell’.

  • It is the fluctuating event cells that make available the energy of space for the work of creating order.

Space is real and substantial and changing incessantly. Things are patterns of space which retain their identity because the patterns persist.