The universe and everything in it is a process

Description of the toroidino and its behaviour

For clarity, the toroidinos in the drawings look like donuts or smoke rings and rotate like smoke rings around their circular axis. However, it may be more likely that they are individually almost spherical, since any *flowing* in of the surroundings would occur equally in all three dimensions. Also for clarity, the toroidinos are shown as appearing to be made of something tangible, the blue part, but of course they are nothing but tension and will extend well beyond the blue part, as indicated by the red *lines of force*.

Toriodino axis of rotation

Although toroidinos are smaller than the Planck length and last no longer than the Planck time, they do have properties that will determine the characteristics of the space-time that is created by the process in which they take part.

The first of these is that, being a toroid, with each doubling in its size, its surface area will increase four times. This, of course, means that the force of its attraction or repulsion will vary according to the inverse of the fourth multiple of the distance from it. This multiple may vary with how spherical the toroidino is.

The second property of the toroidino is its vortex ring effect, that is, because one surface seems to be coming out of the hole and the opposite surface seems to be going in to the hole, it has the effect of making one side attractive and the other side repelling.

Toriodino arrows

One result of this is that one side of the toroidino appears to behave in way opposite from the other side and when it collapses both sides disappear. In other words it fits the description of a virtual particle and its antiparticle coming into existence at the same time and then annihilating each other.

The second effect is that if two or more toroidinos come together face to back, that is lined up in the same way, they will interact strongly (in proportion to the inverse of the fourth multiple of the distance). A similar effect occurs when bar magnets are lined up north-south, north south . . .

Line of toroidinos

Since the fluctuations have a toroidal topology they have the propensity to interact with each other in a ‘leap-frogging’ action, as shown in the simulation here, which may result in them lasting longer, especially as there will likely be many more than two interacting, with the result that they accumulate in significantly greater numbers than event cells with other topologies. Toroidinos that do not form these chains will simply look and behave like virtual particles and their antiparticles until they disappear .

Perhaps this answers the question as to why there appears to be no long-lasting anti-matter in the universe.

Now there is the possibility of an interesting ocurrence. The tension in the lines of force will pull the toroidinos together, tending to compress them as shown below.

Partly compressed toroidinos

And further . . .

Further compressed toroidinos

. . . until we appear to get back to our original toroidino shape.

Fully compressed toroidinos

It should be appreciated that, even though the Planck time (@10-43s) is a very short time compared to the human scale, it is still a very long time compared with, say, 10-50s. In fact comparing 10-50s with 10-43s is like comparing one second with about 115 days, so you can see that it's still possible for much to happen even in what we as humans regard to be a vanishingly small time.

It may be that toroidinos coming together in this way and attaching to each other, forming pairs and longer strings would last longer than the unattached toroidinos.

From seething foam to oscillons

The seething foam of expanding and collapsing toroidinos will behave in the same way as waves in a fluid or electromagnetic waves in a field, that is, due to the Casimir effect, they will tend to move towards the area of greatest concentration, which in this drawing is to the left.

Casimir effect

Because of the rapid popping in and out of toroidinos, a process similar to oscillations, and the Casimir effect, the longer lasting toroidino strings will tend to clump together in oscillons, forming larger, longer lasting domains of energy, the form of which is now larger than the Planck scale and longer lasting than the Planck time.

It is through this mechanism, level upon level of oscillons, that I am suggesting quarks may be formed.

Remember, what we are seeing is a process, neither the toroidinos or the toroidino pairs last longer than the Planck time, even the first stage oscillons will last much longer but, like a lenticular cloud, they are a process as are the subsequent levels of oscillons, up to quarks and other particles, right up to protons, neutrons and electrons. That is, what we know as matter.

In other words we ourselves are a process.

All this has been achieved without breaking the law of conservation of energy because we have not created anything that lasts longer than the Planck time.

In fact no universe ‘exists’ in the normal sense of the word, it is continually coming into being through the ‘loophole’ of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, that is quantum probability, at sizes smaller than the Planck length and for times shorter that the Planck time.

So, the whole universe and everything in it actually takes place in this uncertainty ‘loophole’.

How does this ‘loophole’ universe fit in with accepted theories?

Since it arises from quantum fluctuations it must fit in with, and perhaps help to explain, some aspects of quantum theories.

It is an attempt to explain the process of the universe at sub-quark level, therefore it should not create any difficulties with the standard model of the universe, which seems to explain things pretty well at and above the quark level.

With respect to the general theory of relativity, it may be possible to explain mass and inertia and the curvature of space-time in terms of the fundamental tension that occurs in the toroidinos.

Mass and inertia a function of the fact that toroidinos are space
Because toroidinos are space and originate as quantum fluctuations, there will be tension between toroidinos and their surroundings. That is, if something tries to move the toroidino through space, that movement will be resisted by this tension, giving rise to what I will call the viscosity of space.

Imagine moving a globule of treacle through the remainder of the treacle in a container, the stickier the treacle the more it will tend to 'hold on to' or resist the movement of the globule through it. Also, the larger the globule of treacle you try to move, the more effort will be required to move it. In other word, it behaves as if the treacle had inertia.

For this same reason, the more 'massive' something is the more toroidinos it will have to 'hold on' to the surrounding space, that is the viscosity of space will resist the movement of clusters of toroidinos—oscillons, quarks and so on up to larger scales of matter—which may be what creates inertia.

The more massive, the more toroidinos, the greater will be its inertia. Also, because it is this tension that causes space-time to curve around any mass, the mass and inertia will both be directly related to the number of toroidinos contained in the mass.

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